Italy has made it mandatory to wear face masks in outdoor spaces across the country in an attempt to contain the spread of the coronavirus.
Italians must also wear masks indoors everywhere except in private homes.
Although Covid-19 cases are much lower in Italy than in many other European countries, there has been a steady rise in infections.
Meanwhile, Germany reported a spike in its infection rate to more than 4,000 daily cases.
Although this figure is lower than in many European countries, it is Germany’s highest number of cases in 24 hours since April. Testing has increased, however, so more cases are being recorded.
Germany has seen fewer than 10,000 coronavirus-related deaths so far, out of a population of 83 million. But new restrictions are being introduced, including a ban on people from high-risk regions staying in hotels in the rest of the country.
Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte said tougher measures were needed to avoid returning to an economically devastating lockdown in Italy.
“From now on, masks and protective gear have to be brought with us when we leave our house and worn. We have to wear them all the time unless we are in a situation of continuous isolation,” he said.
Masks must also be worn in shops, offices, on public transport, and in bars and restaurants when not seated at a table.
The measures have already been put in place in some parts of Italy that have seen an increase in infections, such as Rome, but the latest announcement makes them nationwide.
Italians were subject to some of the strictest lockdown measures in the world when the country became the first in Europe to be overwhelmed by the coronavirus earlier in the year.
Although it has managed to keep the virus in check more successfully than many other European countries in recent months, cases in the last 24 hours have surged past the 3,000 mark for the first time since 24 April, registering 3,678 new infections, data from the health ministry shows.
Italy also took action on Wednesday to stem the number of cases coming in from Europe, announcing compulsory testing for anyone travelling from the UK, Netherlands, Belgium and the Czech Republic.
Elsewhere in Europe: